In most cases, testicular cancer starts in the germ cells. The two main types of testicular germ cell tumors are seminomas and nonseminomas. These two types of testicular germ cell tumors grow and spread differently and are treated differently. A testicular tumor that contains both seminoma and nonseminoma cells is treated as a nonseminoma.
(Click Types of Testicular Cancer for more information.)
Risk FactorsNo one knows the exact cause or causes of testicular cancer. However, there are certain conditions that can increase a person's chance of getting it. These conditions are called risk factors. Risk factors for testicular cancer include:
- An undescended testicle
- Abnormal development of the testicles
- A personal or family history of testicular cancer
- Klinefelter's syndrome (a condition that occurs in men as a result of an extra X chromosome)
- Being Caucasian.
Common symptoms include:
- A painless lump or swelling in either testicle
- A change in how the testicle feels
- A dull ache in the lower abdomen or groin
- A sudden buildup of fluid in the scrotum
- Pain or discomfort in a testicle or in the scrotum.
These possible testicular cancer symptoms are not sure signs of the disease. Other health problems can also cause these symptoms. People who have possible symptoms of testicular cancer should see a doctor as soon as possible because only a doctor can diagnose and treat the problem.
(Click Testicular Cancer Symptoms for more information.)