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Stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Bone Marrow Biopsy
In a bone marrow biopsy, a surgeon removes a small piece of bone and bone marrow by inserting a needle into the hipbone or breastbone. A pathologist (someone who studies disease) views both the bone and bone marrow samples under a microscope to look for signs of cancer.
 
Laparotomy
Laparotomy is a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the wall of the abdomen to check the inside of the abdomen for signs of disease. The size of the incision depends on the reason the laparotomy is being done. Sometimes, organs are removed or tissue samples are taken for biopsy. This procedure is done during the staging process only if it is needed to make decisions about treatment.
 
Chest X-Ray
A chest x-ray is an x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. An x-ray is a type of energy beam that can go through the body and onto film, making a picture of areas inside the body.
 
Needle or Surgical Biopsy
In a needle or surgical biopsy, the surgeon removes tissue using a thin needle or scalpel. A pathologist then views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
 
Thoracentesis
In a thoracentesis, a doctor removes some fluid from the space between the lining of the chest and the lung using a needle. A pathologist then views the fluid under a microscope to look for cancer cells.
 

Stages of Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma is categorized into four different stages, which, in turn, are subdivided even further. There is also a stage for Hodgkin's lymphoma that is recurrent (meaning that it has come back after being treated).
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Hodgkin's Disease (Lymphoma)

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